Before the onset of COVID-19, employment in the UK was at a record high. New analysis, which was used in our submission to the Work and Pensions Parliamentary Select Committee inquiry into DWPs preparations for changes in the world of work, showed that the UK economy generated an additional 3.4 million jobs between 2011 and 2019. And contrary to the narrative that the future of work consists of more insecure, poor quality and low wage work, the data shows that growth in employment was primarily high-skilled and permanent. Indeed, employment increased fastest in managerial and professional occupations, whose numbers grew by 27% and 23% respectively. In contrast, employment growth was slower (or non-existent) in low-skill occupations – apart from care work.
The growth also shows, as history has previously illustrated, that technological change can generate a high number of jobs as well as destroy them. This is because technological innovation tends to reduce costs, expand existing markets and open up new ones. It is also due to the expansion of high-skilled occupations such as programmers and software development professionals, whose numbers have grown by 74%. On the downside, technology is also part of the explanation behind the decline in a number of other occupations, such as clerks and retail staff (see table below).
Employment change by selected occupation, UK, 2011-2019
HR managers and directors in the occupation league table
Perhaps one of the surprises of the analysis is to see HR managers and directors lying in second place in this occupation league table. The number of HR managers and directors increased by 66% during the same period; their growth even outstripping that of their finance colleagues.
- 1135 Human resource managers and directors (see above)
- 3562 Human resources and industrial relations officers
- 3563 Vocational and industrial trainers and instructors
- 4138 Human resources administrative occupations
Together, employment in these accounted for 438,000 people in 2011, increasing to 562,000 in 2019- an increase of 28% (see chart below).
Analysis of the above table: Employment in HR- related occupations, UK, 2011–2019
The number of people employed as trainers hardly increased at all, possibly reflecting changes in both the organisation of training and its delivery (such as more on-the-job learning, online delivery). The number of people employed in the most routine HR jobs fell slightly, which is perhaps a consequence of automation removing the need for people to carry out functions such as payroll or record-keeping.
In 2011, there were 107 HR managers/directors for every 100 HR officers; by 2019, this ratio had increased to 136. It is difficult to identify precisely why this occurred. Has HR work become more complex, requiring more skilled and/or experienced staff? Or has there been an element of job title inflation?
Looking ahead, 2020 will see this period of employment growth come to an end. It is impossible yet to say what this will mean for employment in HR, however the demands on HR departments appear to have changed but not diminished, even if staffing isn’t immune from wider changes in organisation context and priorities.
Browse our A–Z catalogue of information, guidance and resources covering all aspects of people practice.
Discover our practice guidance and recommendations to tackle bullying and harassment in the workplace.
This report looks at the role of immigration in the context of the post-Brexit skills challenges
This quarterly survey is one of the most authoritative employment indicators in the UK and provides forward-looking labour market data and analysis on employers’ recruitment, redundancy and pay intentions
How does becoming ‘tech savvy’ improve your professional standing and the HR practice in your organisation?
Research shows part-time working could solve HR’s most pressing issues, according to Professor Clare Kelliher and Dr Charlotte Gascoigne at Cranfield School of Management, and Claire McCartney, the CIPD’s Senior Policy Adviser on resourcing and inclusion
Charles Cotton, CIPD's Senior Policy Adviser on performance and reward, analyses how the increased cost of living is affecting employees using this year’s UK Working Lives survey data from the CIPD
Rachel Suff, the CIPD's Senior Policy Adviser on employee relations, analyses the CIPD’s recent submission to the UK Government’s consultation draft Code of Practice on dismissal and re-engagement