CIPD students can use this guide to help with the compilation of bibliographies. It sets out how to reference books, reports, journal articles and other material using the Harvard system.   

Print or electronic? 

Documents are published in ‘hard’ copy (printed), some are published in both ‘hard’ copy and electronically, while some are only published electronically on the web.  

Unlike printed material, there is no standard for web publishing so it can be difficult tracking down the main elements of a proper bibliographic reference. 


Books, reports and other monographs

Journal articles

Newspaper articles

Conference papers and proceedings

Official publications

Other official publications

Extracts from speeches

Visual and AV materials

Location and arrangement of references

Sample bibliography

How to Write an academic essay

An academic essay is a formal piece of writing which presents an argument to the reader. Learn how to write persuasive and robust academic essays.

How to Write a Critical Review

A critical review is a detailed analysis and assessment of a piece of writing. Understand how to write a critical review that is valid, sound and unbiased.